New Release Research

Bioethanol in Indonesia as a Renewable Alternative Energy
The growing population influences the need for fuel. Indonesia has a lot of natural resources, therefore it has a lot of potential for producing various types of energy. Presidential Regulation No. 5 of 2006 of the Republic of Indonesia on National Energy Policy to create alternative energy sources as a substitute for fuel in Indonesia's energy development. Currently, fossil fuels account for 95 percent of Indonesia's energy consumption. Based on this use data, fuel oil (BBM) accounts for the most significant share, namely 50%, indicating that energy consumption in the transportation sector will likely rise in the following years. An increase in consumption that does not correspond to the rise in output is a question to be resolved. The usage of fossil fuels must be replaced quickly because their supply is diminishing and will run out in the next several years due to their inability to be replenished. Alternative and renewable energy sources are anticipated to exist and be widely utilized by the population. Bioethanol is a sustainable energy source that may be used as a substitute for fossil fuels. Ethanol is a soluble liquid made from glucose fermentation, which is generally followed by a distillation procedure to improve its purity. The chemical formula for ethanol is C2H5OH, and it has a density of 0.7939 g/mL, a boiling point of 78.320°C at a pressure of 766 mmHg, and a heat of combustion of 7093.72 kcal. Bioethanol development benefits the environment, energy security, and socioeconomics. Bioethanol is considered ecologically benign, has minimal emissions, and lowers greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Because bioethanol is made from renewable raw materials, it has the potential to be a long-term energy source. Furthermore, via business and labor, the growth of the bioethanol sector will enhance socio-economic conditions. Various tubers, fruits, and other lignocellulosic plants can be utilized as raw materials for the creation of bioethanol to replace fossil fuels, and even trash can be employed. Bioethanol is a renewable fuel that has been produced in a number of nations. Brazil and the United States are now the world's largest bioethanol producers. The amount of bioethanol produced from sugar cane in Brazil in 2004 was 15 million m3. In the meantime, 14 million m3 of bioethanol is made in the United States. Spain is the leading producer of bioethanol in continental Europe.
Stirling Engine: The Key to Accelerate Electrification through Biomass Utilization in Remote Area
Indonesia is a tropical archipelago with a diversified biodiversity and a number of potential energy sources. However, as an archipelagic country controlled mostly by the sea, Indonesia must adapt to and take use of these characteristics in all areas. In fact, biodiversity and its inhabitants, who come from a variety of cultural origins, are a reflection of the impact of cultural isolation, which is influenced heavily by the distance and maritime boundaries between islands. As a result, if the Indonesian notion of energy distribution is applied to these circumstances, centralized electrification is considered less efficient and costly. Indonesia now has a very even distribution of power plants with various energy sources across the country. Renewable energy is also one of the reasons that leads to energy diversification that is tailored to the area's current resources. However, not all of Indonesia's inhabited locations have topography suitable for the development of electrical distribution infrastructure. Population zoning systems exist in some locations, with high-density communities separated from low-density rural areas. Because of the sparse distribution of the population in rural areas, more work is needed to hasten electrification. As a result, off-grid electrification can be a way to speed up the distribution of electrical energy in rural places where regional access is limited. The purchase of a biomass-fueled Stirling Engine unit for home/communal use is one option that can be implemented in Indonesia. The Stirling Engine is an energy conversion engine that converts external heat into electrical energy, therefore it may theoretically produce energy from any fuel. This technique is then paired with biomass, which is a plentiful resource in Indonesia, particularly in rural and agricultural areas, as well as plantation areas. Stirling engines can be made using wood, twigs, rice husks, and forest leaves as a source of energy to supply continuous electrical energy.

Hydrogen Storage in Indonesia, which one is the finest?
Countries around the world are currently implementing clean, environmentally friendly energy in order to face the transition to technologies that allow for the decrease of greenhouse gas emissions. Solar, geothermal, wind, hydrogen, biomass, and other new renewable energies have all been widely used to lessen reliance on fossil fuels, which emit a lot of CO2. Hydrogen is one of the renewable energy sources that is seen as promising for the future. Because it is storable, transportable, and utilisable, hydrogen offers immense potential for industrial and transportation applications. Hydrogen can be created from a variety of resources using a variety of materials, technological pathways, and both fossil fuels and new renewable energy. The storage technique is important to the growth of hydrogen energy. High gravimetric energy density, volumetric energy density, and low temperature and pressure are all features of good hydrogen storage. Indonesia has a lot of potential for hydrogen energy development. The application of hydrogen energy as a source of power generation is the most appropriate in Indonesia nowadays. In Indonesia, the transportation sector that uses hydrogen energy is currently underdeveloped. Hydrogen in transportation has been unable to compete with electric vehicle technology, which is far safer than hydrogen as a vehicle fuel source. Hydrogen generation requires large-scale storage devices with high gravitational and volumetric energy densities, as well as moderate temperatures and pressures. Based on present conditions, the liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) is the optimum storage technique in Indonesia. Hydrogen is the lightest and most basic element, with only one electron and one proton, and it is colorless, odorless, and combustible. Hydrogen has been used as a source of energy for over 200 years. Hydrogen gas is produced by the interaction of sulfuric acid and iron, according to Swiss scientist Paracelcus. Myelin also stated that hydrogen gas was burned in the seventeenth century. In the past, many raw materials were used to discover hydrogen. The use of hydrogen as an energy source has also been tested in the area where Sir William Robert Grove first created the hydrogen-powered fuel cell. In 1900, hydrogen was also employed to keep aircraft buoyant. Furthermore, the Soviet Union launched the first space shuttle, which used liquid hydrogen fuel, in 1981. Because of its flammability, hydrogen is frequently associated with risk. On May 6, 1937, the Hindenburg tragedy occurred, killing 36 passengers. The German airplane, which had 211,890 m2 of hydrogen gas in 16 camps or cells, was destroyed in a fire in just a few minutes. On the LZ 10 Schwaben aircraft, a fire broke out due to hydrogen being ignited by a spark created by static charge accumulating in the gas bag. This incident resulted in the injuries of 34 soldiers. On February 21, 1922, a US military plane crashed into a high-voltage power wire near Langley Field in Hampton Roads, Virginia, killing 34 people. The United States government decided not to develop hydrogen-powered aircraft.
Perspective in Indonesian Climate, an Update
The shifts of the climate have been encountered by lots of people from coast to coast, time to time and it’s also coming from human activities since the 1800s from the burning of fossil fuels. Greenhouse gas emissions are the main substances that make climate change which include methane and carbon dioxide. The prime emitters are mostly coming from fossil energy electric power plants, transport, buildings, industries, agriculture fields and farms, and land-use sectors [1]. The gasoline that most people use for their cars is one of them. All living creatures on Earth especially wild animals and humans themselves must put on their survival mode to survive from the impact of climate change. It can be seen from the intense and constant changes in environmental conditions such as recurring droughts, storms, heatwaves, rising sea levels, melting glaciers, and warming oceans [2]. In Indonesia, where the whole country’s main food depends on the availability of rice can also be impacted which will worsen the food supply. The study showed on South Sumatra and Great Malang on the indication of climate changes’ impact on the production of paddy/rice, that the agriculture system is very fragile to climate change, and it leads to the decline of paddy production in a few places in both regions. The study calculates the temporal data from 1980 – 2030 also shows a prediction that the paddy production will be grossly declined by 1,37% per year [3]. Global Climate Risk Index 2021 from Germanwatch listed Indonesia in 14th of a climate risk index for 2019 scored 24.83 with fatalities in 2019 ranked in 3rd position. This data shows that Indonesia has a high potential to be badly affected by climate change if there’s no prevention action taken soon. Seroja tropical cyclone that occurred in East Nusa Tenggara, West Nusa Tenggara, and around East Timor from 3rd April to 12th April 2021 was one of the most destructive tropical cyclones after Kenanga cyclone in southern Java back in 2008, told by the National Disaster Mitigation Agency of East Nusa Tenggara (BNPB) [4]. The cyclone that killed at least 222 people, declining production of paddy, and high-risk of climate change fatalities; future proof that climate change affects and will vanish more people. The climate disasters that happen from past to future create high susceptibility to climate change fatalities. The susceptibility itself can be determined by the infrastructure, food supply, and economic framework conditions. World Risk Report 2021 shows that Indonesia is ranked 40th in high risk, scoring 10.39 in the 7.59 – 10.75 range. The susceptibility of Indonesia is classified as medium, but Indonesia still faces an exceedingly high exposure component in which is determined as the risk of getting earthquakes, storms, floods, drought, and sea-level rise.
Potential of Tidal Energy as Renewable Energy for Electricity Generation in Indonesia
Indonesia is a marine country, meaning it is made up of islands with a land area that is almost equal to the amount of sea. Indonesia's enormous seas make it one of the world's countries with the greatest potential for creating energy in water, particularly in the sea. Marine energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources, with plentiful resources and a low environmental impact. Indonesia's waters supply renewable energy sources with a large potential of roughly 60.98 GW scattered across the country's oceans. This can be developed to be utilized as an energy source to replace fossil fuels that have been used in the past. In accordance with the President's decision, renewable energy's contribution to the overall national primary energy mix must be boosted to 17 percent by 2025. With Indonesia's potential as a maritime nation, marine energy is gaining traction as a way to boost electrical energy consumption and contribute considerably to the country's primary energy mix. Tidal energy is a type of marine energy that can be used as a new renewable energy source. Tides are a natural occurrence in which sea levels rise and fall on a regular basis due to a combination of gravity and the attracting force of astronomical objects, particularly the sun, earth, and moon. Tides are caused by gravitational attraction as well as the centrifugal force. The centrifugal effect is a push to the outside of the rotational axis. The tidal cycle occurs twice a day, with two low tides (semidiural) or simply once a day (periodic). In Indonesia, there is a total of 41 GW of tidal energy potential scattered across Medan (North Sumatra), NTB, NTT, Riau Province, West Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, Moluccas, and West Papua, with an average change in sea level of roughly 3-5 meters between highs and lows).

The Current Status and Strategy of Biofuel Development in Indonesia
There has been much concern about a massive increase in the world’s population. It causes the scarcity of resources such as food, health, and energy. Increasing of energy needs, limitation of fossil-fuel-based energy resources, fluctuation of fossil fuel global price and environmental and human health issue of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission have led management energy crises in Indonesia and forced the Government of Indonesia (GOI) to increase fossil fuel import and price (Mayasari, et al, 2019). Biofuels can be an alternative to fossil fuels. Compared to fossil fuels, biofuels have lower carbon emissions. Biofuels can help in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (Rasool and Hemalatha, 2016). Fuels derived from plants come under renewable sources and can be grown anywhere. Biofuels are defined as liquid or gaseous fuels that derive from biomass materials. Biofuel (Rasool and Hemalatha, 2016) are mainly obtained from biological materials, mostly from plants, animals, wastes and microorganisms (Datta, et al., 2019). Biofuels can be used alone or in combination with other fossil fuels such as petrol (Rasool and Hemalatha, 2016). Primary biofuels are mostly fuel wood, wood chips, pellets and organic materials which are generally used for heating generation, cooking or electricity purposes in a crude appearance. Secondary biofuels which are acquired from cultured biomass and consist of liquid biofuels that are extensively used in transportation and industrial purposes. The third-generation biofuels are fuels that would be produced from algal biomass, which has a characteristic growth yield as compared with conventional lignocellulosic biomass (Datta, et al 2019).
Indonesia’s Future Fossil Fuel (Machine Learning Approach)
Fossil fuel is one of the most important energy sources in Indonesia and is widely used both in transportation, industry, and households. Fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes such as the anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms and their resulting fossil fuels typically have an age of millions of years. Energy consumption in Indonesia, based on data from EIA (Energy Information Administration) from 1980 to 2018, has been rising sharply as a result of the high population. This condition is certainly a serious concern because if new energy reserves are not found, Indonesia is going to have an energy crisis. Forecasting primary energy production and consumption markets is critical for efficient energy policy implementation. More precise forecasts of energy consumption and production are vital when consumption growth rates are greater than production growth rates as in the case of Indonesia. To understand the future of energy consumption and production, we utilize machine learning algorithms, Holts Winter forecasting, Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA), and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. We trained and evaluated the model using annual data from 1980 to 2018. The Holts Winters model and SARIMA outperform the ARIMA. The prediction shows that the supply of dry natural gas and coal is secure, whereas the supply of petroleum is in jeopardy. Coal is the safest energy source, according to forecasted predictions, with considerable production, growing 23% from 2018.