Countries around the world are currently implementing clean, environmentally friendly energy in order to face the transition to technologies that allow for the decrease of greenhouse gas emissions. Solar, geothermal, wind, hydrogen, biomass, and other new renewable energies have all been widely used to lessen reliance on fossil fuels, which emit a lot of CO2. Hydrogen is one of the renewable energy sources that is seen as promising for the future. Because it is storable, transportable, and utilisable, hydrogen offers immense potential for industrial and transportation applications. Hydrogen can be created from a variety of resources using a variety of materials, technological pathways, and both fossil fuels and new renewable energy. The storage technique is important to the growth of hydrogen energy. High gravimetric energy density, volumetric energy density, and low temperature and pressure are all features of good hydrogen storage.
Indonesia has a lot of potential for hydrogen energy development. The application of hydrogen energy as a source of power generation is the most appropriate in Indonesia nowadays. In Indonesia, the transportation sector that uses hydrogen energy is currently underdeveloped. Hydrogen in transportation has been unable to compete with electric vehicle technology, which is far safer than hydrogen as a vehicle fuel source. Hydrogen generation requires large-scale storage devices with high gravitational and volumetric energy densities, as well as moderate temperatures and pressures. Based on present conditions, the liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) is the optimum storage technique in Indonesia.
Hydrogen is the lightest and most basic element, with only one electron and one proton, and it is colorless, odorless, and combustible. Hydrogen has been used as a source of energy for over 200 years. Hydrogen gas is produced by the interaction of sulfuric acid and iron, according to Swiss scientist Paracelcus. Myelin also stated that hydrogen gas was burned in the seventeenth century. In the past, many raw materials were used to discover hydrogen. The use of hydrogen as an energy source has also been tested in the area where Sir William Robert Grove first created the hydrogen-powered fuel cell. In 1900, hydrogen was also employed to keep aircraft buoyant. Furthermore, the Soviet Union launched the first space shuttle, which used liquid hydrogen fuel, in 1981.
Because of its flammability, hydrogen is frequently associated with risk. On May 6, 1937, the Hindenburg tragedy occurred, killing 36 passengers. The German airplane, which had 211,890 m2 of hydrogen gas in 16 camps or cells, was destroyed in a fire in just a few minutes. On the LZ 10 Schwaben aircraft, a fire broke out due to hydrogen being ignited by a spark created by static charge accumulating in the gas bag. This incident resulted in the injuries of 34 soldiers. On February 21, 1922, a US military plane crashed into a high-voltage power wire near Langley Field in Hampton Roads, Virginia, killing 34 people. The United States government decided not to develop hydrogen-powered aircraft.