There has been much concern about a massive increase in the world’s population. It causes the scarcity of resources such as food, health, and energy. Increasing of energy needs, limitation of fossil-fuel-based energy resources, fluctuation of fossil fuel global price and environmental and human health issue of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission have led management energy crises in Indonesia and forced the Government of Indonesia (GOI) to increase fossil fuel import and price (Mayasari, et al, 2019). Biofuels can be an alternative to fossil fuels. Compared to fossil fuels, biofuels have lower carbon emissions. Biofuels can help in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (Rasool and Hemalatha, 2016). Fuels derived from plants come under renewable sources and can be grown anywhere. Biofuels are defined as liquid or gaseous fuels that derive from biomass materials. Biofuel (Rasool and Hemalatha, 2016) are mainly obtained from biological materials, mostly from plants, animals, wastes and microorganisms (Datta, et al., 2019). Biofuels can be used alone or in combination with other fossil fuels such as petrol (Rasool and Hemalatha, 2016).
Primary biofuels are mostly fuel wood, wood chips, pellets and organic materials which are generally used for heating generation, cooking or electricity purposes in a crude appearance. Secondary biofuels which are acquired from cultured biomass and consist of liquid biofuels that are extensively used in transportation and industrial purposes. The third-generation biofuels are fuels that would be produced from algal biomass, which has a characteristic growth yield as compared with conventional lignocellulosic biomass (Datta, et al 2019).